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克服不良习惯 提高阅读速度

www.ijjnews.com  2016-02-02 11:41  来源:《福建中学教学》
  

  阅读理解题在MET试卷中占分比例大,学生想得高分,做好这道理至关重要;同时练好这类题,对增强英语语感,提高英语写作能力等方面都是有很大帮助的。阅读理解题主要检测学生阅读能力,阅读能强弱除了理解力之外,还有个关键性的标志就是阅读速度。那么怎样提高学生的阅读速度呢?当然进行大量的阅读实践是必要的,但阅读再多,不辅之以技巧,对高中学生来说想提高阅读速度也是不容易的。针对学生在平时阅读中出现的一些不良习惯,我们进行了有的放矢的阅读训练,旨在提高学生阅读速度,收效很好,现介绍如下:

  一、学生阅读文章时总喜欢动口,这样做既影响别人,又影响自己对文章的深入理解。且阅读速度慢。针对这种现象,我们严格规定在阅读时,将手放在嘴唇边,以便阻止动嘴。当然,对一部分学生开始不习惯,因此,我们应反复提醒,巡回督促,直至所有学生改掉每看文章必动嘴的不良习惯。

  There are two ways in which one can own a book. The first is the property right you establish by paying for it, just as you pay for clothes and furniture. But this act of buying is only the first step to possession. Full ownership comes only when you have made it a part of yourself, and the best way to make yourself a part of it is by writing in it. A comparison may make the point clear. You buy a piece of beef and transfer it from the butcher's icebox to your own. But you do not own the beef in the most important sense until you eat it and get it into your blood. I am arguing that books, too, must be absorbed in your blood to do you any good.比方说,上段英语文字对一位英语阅读习惯好的同学来说。完成且理解它约1分30秒钟。但对看文章动嘴的同学来说,看完它需要3-5分钟,而且还不能很好理解。

  二、学生在阅读时,喜欢用笔或用手指指点所看的文字。这样做的结果总是视线跟着手指动或笔头动,一次接触的文字总是单个词或词组,大大降低了对语群,句子的整体性理解。且阅读速度慢。对此,在训练中,严格规定在阅读时,手不准接触材料。事情虽小,但若养成了一个良好的阅读习惯,对阅读速度的加快也是大有脾益的。

  三、学生在阅读时,往往是一句话看了再看,往往把过多的精力集中在每一单句上。影响篇章的整体性理解。我们采取了限时阅读。根据文章长短,给出规定的时间,到时间就收卷。收卷后就要求学生简述文章主要内容,归纳文章中心思想,回答文章中出现过的时间、人物、数字或事实等问题。这样做使学生有种紧迫感。当然,开始学生看到记住的东西较少,但渐渐便习惯了这样的限时阅读,提高了阅读速度。

  四、有些学生主动提出来,他们一看英语文章,大脑中马上就会出现其它杂念。这样当然对阅读速度有极大影响。针对反映的面较广,我们采取了先出问题,后发材料。看完后,即刻回答问题,这样让学生带着问题去看文章。由于学生心中有了目的性,也就有了主动性,因此看起文章来不再会现杂念。For example:Questions.1. How are we likely to do the most efficient kind of reading?2. How many ways are there in which one can own a book? And what are they?3. How many kinds of book owners do you think there are?4. Why is making up a book necessary to reading it?Passage.

  You know you have to read "between the lines "to get the most out of anything. I want to persuade you to do something equally important in the course of your reading. I want to persuade you to "write between the lines. " Unless you do, you are not likely to do the most efficient kind of reading. I insist, quite bluntly, that marking up a book is not an act of damage but of love.

  There are two ways in which one can own a book. The first is the property right you establish by paying for it, just as you pay for clothes and furniture. But this act of buying is only the first step to possession. Full ownership comes only when you have made it a part of yourself, and the best way to make yourself a part of it is by writing in it. A comparison may make the point clear. You buy a piece of beef and transfer it from the butcher's icebox to your own. But you do not own the beef in the most important sense until you eat it and get it into your blood. I am arguing that books, too, must be absorbed in your blood to do you any good.

  There are three kinds of book owners. The first has all the standard sets and bestsellers—unread, untouched. The second has a great many books—a few of them read through, most of them dipped into, but all of them as clean and shiny as the day they were bought. The third has a few books or many—every one of them worn, shaken and loosened by continual use, marked and scribbled (涂写) in from front to back.

  Why is marking up a book necessary to reading it ? First, it keeps you awake. (And I don't mean only conscious; I mean wide awake .) In the second place, reading, if it is active, is thinking, and thinking tends to express itself in words, spoken or written. The marked book is usually the thought- through book. Finally, writing helps you remember the thoughts you had, or the thoughts the author expressed.

  五、学生在阅读时,往往会一遇生词便拿出词典,这样看一篇文章就必然花费很多时间,并很容易产生疲倦感。实际上,有些生词是可以凭借一定的技巧进行猜义的。所以我们有意识地训练学生对文章中出现的生词进行猜义。

  ①根据上下文意思进行猜义。通过对上下文的正确理解,猜测出生词的意思。如……The menu that the waiter gave to the man gave the correct price for each dish and each bottle of wine , while the menu that he gave to the lady gave a much higher price. So when the man calmly ordered dish after dish and wine after wine the lady thought he was much more generous than he really was。其中generous词为生词,但通过对女士菜单上的much higher price以及男友的calmly ordered dish after dish and wine and wine不少学生就能猜出generous是大方、慷慨的意思。

  ②根据逻辑推理进行猜义。如……I've never been to London, and therefore I don't know much about it .其中therefore为生词,但通过了解到后句为前句之果,学生就不难猜出therefore是因此、所以的意思。

  ③根据词缀进行猜义。…After the meeting, the attendants interchanged opinions…其中interchange为生词,但我们学过词根change为换,inter前缀意思为相互间的,所以我们就可以猜出interchange意思是:相互交换。根据文章内容的逻辑关系以及一定的词法,对生词进猜义的方法很多,这里仅举三例为证。总之,提高阅读速度,是做好阅读理解的有力保证。因为只有提高阅读速度才有足够的时间对文章进行综合归纳,判断推理。况且近年来MET试题中阅读理解题的逻辑推断题逐年增加,所以提高高中学生的英语阅读速度是很有必要的。

(作者 戴俊峰)

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